With my nose deep in textbooks at the moment I sometimes miss the latest food trend or tag. However having recently watched the BBC's Horizon: Clean Eating - The Dirty Truth programme with the shrewd and delightful Dr Giles Yeo, I was reminded of this trend in January's delicious magazine. In their "a good rant" at the back, Anthony Warner (The Angry Chef; see details at end), whose blog is not for the faint-hearted (or clean-eating), argues against the "increasingly crowded wellness market...as more new bloggers, Instagram stars and bandwagon-jumping celebrities appear." The meat of his delightful diatribe against "clean-eating" is a meat we should all be chewing on more enthusiastically.
"The key to a healthy relationship with food is to embrace as much variety as possible and try to keep some balance. To arbitrarily exclude anything is quite the opposite of what we should be doing. Eating is one of life's great joys.
"There is no such thing as a healthy food, or an unhealthy one. Healthy eating is about balance. Despite what the media would have you believe, the advice from scientists has remained fairly consistent over the years. Eat a balanced diet, lots of fruit and vegetables, not too many calories, not too much salt. Try not to become overweight; it’s bad for you. If you do, you are eating too many calories so cut down a bit.
"Sugar is not bad for you. Too much sugar is bad for you. Too much sugar and too much fat is even worse for you. Too much water is bad for you. Too much kale is bad for you... It is all a question of balance".
Have we simply become desensitised to the phrase "a balanced diet"?
Anthony Warner is a development chef by day and blogs as The Angry Chef by night (angry-chef.com). Twitter handle is @One_Angry_Chef
Jo and I give chocolate advent calendars to the kids every December from the shop, usually Lindt. But this year we decided to get them something that they would realise wasn't a leftover/overstock from the shop, but a thoughtful gift. So we ordered them from Hotel Chocolat.
Anyway there was one Montezuma Organic Chocolate Advent Calendar left over in the shop which Jo and I reluctantly (!) agreed to share. Now Sunday breakfast is a big meal for us and we never read at table anyway. It was my turn for an Advent Chocolate! A perfect start to a fine, sunny, crunchy, cold December Sunday. No spectacles at table which means I can't see what the day is on the calendar! "Is that today's?" "No Daddy...give it here". They both disappear: - my chocolate-loving daughter and my Organic Chocolate Advent Calendar! Fortunately, she returns with a similar number of windows open as when they left. But now, there are big numbers on the calendar! Thank you!
Chocolate Advent Calendar producers please note.
I started studying for a Higher Diploma in Food and Nutrition Science in January 2016. It is comprised of 8 modules including Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Physiology as well as a Research Project. It should take about 2 years - 4 modules per year.
After 3 modules and with Christmas on the horizon, I decided a break was in order, so decided to start the next module (Nutrition II) in January. However, still waking at 04:30, it was obvious another project was required.
Having had a look at our old website I realised not only how out-of-date it had become but also how clunky it looked (which had been a design feature to begin with, yes believe it, that was how I wanted it to be seen - as honest, solid but a tad clunky!).
So here I am...designing our latest, but this time by drag-and-drop. I can code HTML a bit and built the clunky one from scratch on Dreamweaver, though never learnt CSS, so it took ages. This is so much quicker.
Hope you like it when I get there...only testing at the moment...it could be a month or two!
This is an essay I wrote as part of my coursework for Academic Writing. It is pure self-indulgence I'm afraid.
Crema is a creamy rich tan-coloured foam that sits atop an espresso coffee beverage. "A foam is a coarse dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid continuous phase. In the case of espresso coffee, the gas phase is mainly the carbon dioxide generated during coffee roasting and entrapped within the cell structure." Crema is the terminus of a journey made by molecular carbon dioxide from the coffee bean.
The coffee bean is a seed of the coffee cherry (Coffea arabica or C. canephora v.robusta). After a cleaning, fermenting and drying process, the still whole green bean is in a stable storable condition with moisture content of 11%. The process of transforming the bean to espresso and crema first requires it to be roasted.
After roasting to a chosen temperature and time, coffee beans lose their moisture, undergo various stages of the Maillard reaction (a chemical reaction between sugars and amino acids resulting in a change of colour and flavour) and acquire a volume of carbon dioxide. They are darker in colour, lighter in weight and their chemical composition has changed via pyrolysis. The beans are then cooled quickly and packed. They evolve carbon dioxide. (Secure packaging commonly has valves to allow this release.)
Although there are various ways to create espresso coffee, usually the beans are milled (ground) to a fine powder. Hot water at a temperature between 92-94°C  is allowed to percolate under pressure through compressed grounds. If the resulting espresso has been made correctly it will have a surface of crema. "Grinding destroys the roasted coffee cell structure and this results in a remarkable release of carbon dioxide, with obvious consequences on crema" . Percolation needs to take place soon after grinding to avoid the escape of carbon dioxide that would otherwise aid the formation of crema.
Variations in the blend of coffee, the temperature and length of roast, fineness of grind, compression of grounds, temperature and duration of percolation, along with the distance of pour and type of receptacle can alter the colour, structure and longevity of the resulting crema. "The texture of the crema is a mark of quality, it must be stable, medium brown, and pervaded by wispy, lighter stripes ("tiger-skin effect"). Even after vigorous stirring the crema must again consolidate itself.".
The existence of a crema seems to be important organoleptically: "We observed a three-step ranking in intensity of the sensory attributes in the sensory evaluation: (i) high scores for the espressi (with crema), (ii) middle-range scores for the lungi (a lungo is an espresso with hot water added) with crema and (iii) lower scores for the lungi without crema.". The crema adds complexity to the mouthfeel as well as various volatile compounds to organoleptic analysis. The mouth area is coated with crema from the first sip. Aromatic and flavour components dissolved in crema are only gradually released. Receptors for bitterness are less sensitive. Chemviews suggests “After enjoying a cup of espresso with a good crema, one can actually still smell and taste it 20-30 minutes later.” Crema acts as a cap on volatile compounds retaining them in the assembly for longer. It also preserves heat, allowing the beverage to maintain its temperature for longer. According to Petracco, persistence is an important characteristic of crema and its disappearance is due to the limited elasticity of liquid films (lamellae) that entrap the gas. And so the journey ends.
The journey is summarised by Illy and Navarini who suggest that espresso brewing can be described as “a quick way to transfer carbon dioxide from roasted and ground coffee to a small cup by means of hot water under pressure”. This then leads to the facts that for crema in espresso coffee, carbon dioxide has to be:
– generated by roasting
– maintained in the bean by proper packaging
– maintained in the ground coffee
– solubilised in water
– released into the beverage.
 Illy E. and Navarini L. (2011) Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam. Food Biophysics, 6: 336
 National Coffee Association USA (NCA). Available at: link
[Accessed 31 January 2016]
 Gloess A., Schönbächler B., Klopprogge et al. (2013) Comparison of nine common coffee extraction methods: instrumental and sensory analysis. European Food and Technology, 236: 609
 Chemviews Magazine Espresso Crema. 2013. Available at: link
[Accessed 31 January 2016]
 Illy E. and Navarini L. (2011) Neglected Food Bubbles: The Espresso Coffee Foam. Food Biophysics, 6: 346
 Roth K. Espresso – A Feast for the Senses. Chemie in unserer Zeit Wiley-VCH, 2010 Available at: link [Accessed 31 January 2016]
 Gloess A., Schönbächler B., Klopprogge et al. (2013) Comparison of nine common coffee extraction methods: instrumental and sensory analysis. European Food and Technology, 236: 624
 Petracco M. (2013). Foam. Trieste Coffee Cluster. Available at: link [Accessed 31 January 2016]